- Abrasive flow machining of 3D printed metal partsLuka Kastelic, Katedra za menedžment obdelovalnih tehnologij, Fakulteta za strojništvo, UNI LJ
Davorin Kramar, Katedra za menedžment obdelovalnih tehnologij, Fakulteta za strojništvo, UNI LJ
Franci Pušavec, Katedra za menedžment obdelovalnih tehnologij, Fakulteta za strojništvo, UNI LJ
Nowadays, the use of additive technologies is increasing. Despite the exceptional capability to produce complex geometries, additive technologies are unable to produce components or functional surfaces within tight tolerances and integrity demands. With other words, “as build” surface qualities are poorer in comparison to a conventional machined surfaces. Therefore, components have to be post-machined. Lately, abrasive flow machining (AFM) is offering improvements in such cases. However, many process parameters, e.g. abrasive media property, temperature, velocity, etc. influencing the performance of AFM and their understanding is crucial for successful implementation of AFM into the industrial applications. This paper presents scientific review of AFM, with an emphasis on post-machining of 3D printed metal parts.
- Advanced 3D - DMLS technologyMario Šinko, MARSI, Mario Šinko s.p.
Matic Vogrin, MARSI, Mario Šinko s.p.
Advanced industries require development of special, innovative tools but certain toolbars cannot be manufactured using traditional, conventional, manufacturing and machine technologies (procedures). These tools need to develop, construct and foresee all the functions of the tool in the long run. New technologies, such as 3D metal printing, allow toolmaking to improve product quality and extend tool life time.
MARSi is a company that, among others, specializes in the design of conforming tools for the high technology industry and integrated additive production.
- Advanced drive system featuresPeter Skopec, ControlTech d.o.o.
The trend of industrial automation has recently been in the process of connecting machines to networks and obtaining diagnostic data. In addition, there is a constant tendency to increase productivity and energy efficiency of machines and to improve the safety of machines.
We note that the prevailing mind is that the higher level of safety negatively affects the productivity of the machine, but research in this field shows that the effects are just the opposite - a higher level of safety and improved diagnostics positively influence the productivity of the machine, or so called \"Up time\". In addition, it is the desire of end-users to eliminate the defect part in case of failure as soon as possible and restart the production in the shortest possible time. Insofar as we succeed in creating an energy efficient system in addition to the above, we are on the right way to modern, efficient production.
- Advantages of adaptive mill strategiesMirko Ficko, Fakulteta za strojništvo, Univerza v Mariboru
Ivo Pahole, Fakulteta za strojništvo, Univerza v Mariboru
Mario Lončar, Fakulteta za strojništvo, Univerza v Mariboru
Simon Klančnik, Fakulteta za strojništvo, Univerza v Mariboru
The paper presents adaptive milling strategies with their characteristics and advantages. The essence of adaptive milling strategies is to adjust the machining paths so that good cutting conditions are ensured. Since these are mostly demanded by high-speed cutting and include a lot of transfer movements, adaptive milling strategies require CNC machining tools and tools adapted to it.
An experiment, the equipment and the basic conditions for successful work with adaptive milling strategies are presented. The creation of CNC program according to adaptive milling strategy for modern machine tools was carried out by modern CAD / CAM software. Emphasis is on comparison of adaptive milling strategy with a traditional one.
- Automatisation of injection molding of optical componentsAnet Rožič, Hella Saturnus Slovenija d.o.o
Matija Obolnar, Hella Saturnus Slovenija d.o.o
David Šenica, Hella Saturnus Slovenija d.o.o
With increasing products complexity in automotive industry there are higher demands for process control. In the past, additional process control of the tool and injection molding machine did not have a big role, therefor also treaceability of the components was not provided. Treaceability and process control can be improved with measuring of the injection molding pressure, temperature and acoustis emission in the tool, adaptive control of injection molding machine and tool and with other systems for process controlling. Beside control, automatisation take a big part in the industry 4.0, because it can provide higher process control and can eliminate humane factor.
In this article will be presented general example of automatisation and process control in automotive industry, which follows the idea of industry 4.0.
- Biobased polymer materials - more than only biopolymers. The role of additives, compatibilizers, fillers and reinforcementsThomas Wilhelm, Fakulteta za tehnologijo polimerov
Silvester Bolka, Fakulteta za tehnologijo polimerov
Gregor Kraft, Fakulteta za tehnologijo polimerov
Janez Slapnik, Fakulteta za tehnologijo polimerov
Biopolymers gain growing interest due to the obvious need to be more responsible in taking care of our environment. The global production volume of biopolymers is still quite small, accounting only for approximately 1 – 2% of the world’s polymer production.
However, commercially used biobased polymer materials are consisting not only of biopolymers. They are compounds of the polymer with other components, e.g. additives, compatibilizers, fillers and reinforcements – which, in a consequent approach, should be biobased as well. We will discuss the need for such biobased components and present some indicative research in this field.
- Calibration of UV-A metersGašper Fašun, SIJ Ravne Systems
Despite the fact that we are not able to see the UV light with the naked eye, it is no stranger to us for quite some time now. With the development of different man-made light sources, numerous applications have been developed. In addition to its use in medicine, biology, cosmetics its applications are also significant in the industry. To ensure proper measurement, the first step is to provide the measurements that we can trust. And calibration procedure of UV light detectors is one of the important steps in this direction. In order to calibrate the meters, a deep understanding of the theoretical background associated with light sources and sensors for measuring irradiation with UV light is required. By understanding the theoretical background, we can successfully solve the problems that arise on our way to a successful calibration and therefore good measurement.
- Complete solutions of manufacturing processes for machining of castings and other workpiecesBogdan Kukovič, Unior d.d. - Strojegradnja
UNIOR Special Machines is a company with many years of experience in the construction of machines and appliances. Lately, our program is increasingly adapted to the needs of foundries and forges. Nowadays, we are already suppliers of machines for Unior\'s forging devision, Cimos, LTH, Talum and quite a few more foreign foundries; furthermore, TIER 1 suppliers, especially in the field of complex workpieces.
In order to provide an optimal machining process for very complex workpieces, which have very short machining time and high accuracy requirements, we present our concept for execution of such projects:
1. Participation of Unior\'s specialists already in the development phase of the workpiece.
2. Preparation of the concept of machining technology and the calculation of cycle times is carried out based on many years of experience from the machining of a variety of materials with different cooling media.
3. Production of an optimal machine concept for the workpiece is carried out based on experience from similar machining and workpiece characteristics.
4. Preparation of clamping concepts is carried out at Unior.
5. Preparation of process automation.
6. Communication in Slovene language and within a few hours directly at the customer\'s premises.
7. Service is one of the most important support services to the customer.
8. We also carry out professional training of customer’s personnel.
Also in Slovenia, german quality is produced and guaranteed by European standards. By focusing on the buyer’s wishes, we have made a step forward and closer to their expectations better than the competition.
- Cradle to cradle design innovationsMarko Krajner, 3ZEN d.o.o.
Roman Kunič, Fakulteta za gradbeništvo in geodezijo
Circular economy is need, which EU request to all EU countries. The only concrete system to validate products, and to be confirmed with certification, is Cradle to Cradle TM certification. Regarding biological cycle, which transform materials into soil, will be presented industrial composting. Industrial composting will be presented through companies, which are Cradle to Cradle certified, and are pioneers in this story; Lauffenmuhle GER, Bayonix SWI, Wolford AUT
- Cryogenic milling of 42CrMo4 steelDamir Grguraš, Fakulteta za strojništvo, Ljubljana
Rok Sraka, Fakulteta za strojništvo, Ljubljana
Franci Pušavec , Fakulteta za strojništvo, Ljubljana
In cryogenic machining, which has proven to be a viable alternative to conventional treatment, instead of harmful oil based emulsions, cryogenic media is applied in liquid state to the machining process/zone. To prove this, in current work, an analysis is performed on machining performance of steel 42CrMo4. For comparison conventional machining with emulsion is compared to single-channel carbon dioxide and MQL (minimum quantity lubrication). The amount of LCO2 and MQL was varied during the milling experiments in order to find the most appropriate cooling and lubricating capacity, with goal to achieve the longest tool life. All experiments were carried out with the same cutting parameters, and the same machining strategy. It has been found that cryogenic milling is a promising alternative in view of cost and tool life. Additionally, cryogenic machining brings into the process greater control over the process as well as cleaner environment. Workpieces stay after CO2 evaporation dry. Thus, the cryogenic technology seems to be ready for industrial implementation.
- Detection of surface and hidden defects using the acoustic response of specimensSamo Šali , SaliGuitars & SaliHangboards
Matjaž Rot , Fakulteta za strojništvo, Ljubljana
We created a real time working algorithm and software to detect surface and hidden (sub-surface) defects in products. Using a relatively simple measuring equipment (A/D converter, microphone) we created a method that can in certain cases detect defects with an almost 100% accuracy, based on the acoustic response of specimens. Typical faults suitable for such detection are cracks, shrink holes, etc. A simple and quick preliminary test shows whether a specimen type is suitable to be analysed by our method.
The specimen is excited by unmeasured mechanical impulse, while its acoustic response, i.e. the changes in sound pressure, is measured by microphone under near-field conditions. The analysis of the measured signal is based on the statistical analysis of three measured parameters and on the physics-based analysis of one measured parameter. This method allows an analysis speed of around one piece per second and does not represent any significant investment into the work environment.
- Development of a plastic automotive oil separator component Luka Bertoncelj, Iskra ISD Plast d.o.o.
Robert Kocbek, Iskra ISD Plast d.o.o.
Silvester Bolka, FTPO
Gregor Čepon, LADISK
Blaž Starc, LADISK
Martin Česnik, LADISK
The current trends in the automotive industry of the 21 century show the need to reduce the assembly parts variety and part weight in order to reduce CO2 emissions and the overall production cost. Therefore, the R&D process of under-the-hood components is focused on the transition from metal to plastic, since plastics are rapidly improving with regards to achievable mechanical properties, despite harsh operating conditions.
The presented project highlights an R&D methodology that was established at our company together with LADISK and FTPO. By following this methodology, we successfully developed a polymer version of a currently aluminium oil mist separator connector which is used with 13l diesel truck engines. Oil mist separator is a mechanical system that is used to separate oil from blow-by gas which is produced during the engine\'s operation. It allows a yearly oil saving of up to 30 litres, making it a highly environmentally friendly support system. The connector presents a physical connection between the oil mist separator and the engine block while being exposed to extreme operating conditions – static and dynamic loads, hot air (110 °C) and hot oil (up to 140 °C) under 6 bar of pressure. The connector also has to maintain appropriate sealing function between the oil mist separator and the engine block.
The development process was performed both numerically (modal analysis, harmonic analysis, random vibration analysis, structural analysis and Moldflow analysis) and experimentally (experimental modal analysis, endurance test, sine-sweep analysis and material testing).
The final polymer connector is in comparison with the aluminium 15% lighter in weight, fully economically feasible and has a lower environmental impact.
- Development of system for evaluation and assignment of workplaces to workers with disabilitiesNoka Kunej, Hella Saturnus Slovenija d.o.o.
Aljoša Novak, Hella Saturnus Slovenija d.o.o.
Marko Barišić, Hella Saturnus Slovenija d.o.o.
Ana Šušteršič, Hella Saturnus Slovenija d.o.o.
Matevž Močilnikar, Hella Saturnus Slovenija d.o.o.
As a production company with large number of employees we are frequently dealing with employees, who are, due to different circumstances, facing changes in their medical condition and therefore, they are only allowed to work under conditions defined by accredited health institutions. We were encouraged towards deeper thinking about the topic during project cooperation with Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor. Together with students and professors from university we have developed a base for a computer program, which is meant to assign workplaces to workers with disabilities based on information about workplaces and employees.
During the research the need for good basis and deeper understanding of medical restrictions raised up. It was recognized that it is not possible to evaluate workplaces only by ergonomic guidelines, such as heights of work stations, material arrangement or space defined. As well it is not possible to assume suitability of workplaces based on ergonomics evaluation with one of recognized methods (for example OWAS), since they give us information about possible health risks for healthy workforce. Results of those are of course basis for any further analysis, since good ergonomic design of workplace is condition that needs to be reached for all work stations and all employees.
To gain a reliable data about workplace suitability for workers with disabilities, we have prepared evaluation form with different sections covering different medical conditions that serves as base for work restrictions. With the help of specialist for occupational medicine the list of moves including critical limits and frequencies that allow safe work for employees with disabilities for each section was prepared. Those limits do not correspond to those defined for healthy people and for that reason it is extremely important to take this information into account when evaluating workspace for workers with disabilities.
In practice it means that when evaluating workspace firstly we need to check ergonomic measures and occupational safety and further on we move deep in to the nature of work or operation. All the moves are examined thoroughly, repetitions, forces and loads are included in analysis.
Questions in evaluation form are generally answered by yes or no, but they don’t give us unambiguous answer about suitability of workplace for workers with disabilities. Each question is related to description of employees’ medical conditions and the information is collected and processed in Microsoft Excel program. It is capable to show the result of appropriate workplaces from another data base for selected employee. It was developed to help leaders, who often don’t possess deeper knowledge on this topic, find a workspace for their employees.
Nevertheless, the most important is to involve our employees to normal work process in our company, regardless their limitations, by giving them opportunity to work at suitable workplaces, that will not affect or worsen their medical condition.
- Development of the automated leak testing equipmentJure Kokalj, KNT d.o.o.
Janez Kokalj, KNT d.o.o.
Edvard Dolenc, KNT d.o.o.
The core business of the company KNT d.o.o. represents design and production of the automated leak testing devices, geometry measurements of parts and their final marking. The state of the art approaches are used at the mechanical design of the parts manipulation. We use innovative sensors and modern approach at the information flow in the production processes. In the field of the automated leak testing, we are present for almost a decade. In this period, many different innovations have been introduced, one of them is development of our own sensor module for fast and accurate leakage testing of different products. In the paper, an overview of the leak-testing field follows a short presentation of company KNT. Finally, the development of our own sensors module is presented.
- Excellent processes management - digital transformation (case study).Robert Orehek, Tom PIT d.o.o.
We all strive, try to achieve and look for optimal process management throughout the company\'s vertical. This requires investments in various segments of the company, whether in the process or production area. What is the potential contribution of digital transformation to the process management within companies in the industry?
Nowadays, every investment is conditioned by the return of the investment, the added value, and, last but not least, the achievement of the minimal cost of the product that it will contribute to the company. Without this, there is no investment and there is no digital transformation. Effective process management can allow us to reduce current costs to the very minimum or to offer a service / product that has a greater or new added value on the market. Consequently, we achieve greater competitiveness and better business results.
If a business model was once developed for a company and then used for 20 years, this period is rapidly decreasing after year 2000. With a few rare exceptions, we can conclude that industrial companies must renew or supplement their business model every two years. That enables them to remain competitive on the market. In all likelihood, more work is needed for those who want to stay at the top.
What is needed for a good return of investment?
How to find out where we can help with digital transformation?
When and where to start with digital transformation at all?
Should you use industry standard tools like most and stay average like most?
Should you follow good practices and always be a step ahead?
We know- it isn’t so simple, where are hidden the traps?
We will slowly have to admit that we must step out-of the-box. Innovative processes require innovative support for their management.
Join me and look at two examples how some of the best in Slovenia have tackled this challenge.
- FIELD - smart factories management softwerFranc Žaberl, FANUC ADRIA d.o.o.
FIELD is a software developed according to the principles of \"Industry 4.0\". It\'s intention is collecting and analyzing data from individual components, machines, production lines or complete factories. FANUC provides the hardware and basic structure of the software. Because the system is fully open, users or independent providers can create their own custom-made applications and user requirements.
- Final parts production with HP Jet Fusion technologyDavid Fister, CGS plus d.o.o.
In 2017, HP presented the new 3D Printing Technology, Multi Jet Fusion. We are currently printing with materials PA11, PA 12 and PA12 GB, and we expect new materials in the future. Since October 2018 we have the first such 3D printer in Slovenia as well. CGS plus d.o.o. demo center has the HP Multi Jet Fusion 4200, which is the first 3D printer for serial production. Since October 2018 we have been printing 3D products used in various industries, from machine building, automotive and aerospace industries to prototyping in footwear .... Industry. The fact is that the quality of 3D printed products is equal to the quality of technical plastics and injected parts, and therefore is appropriate for manufacturing final products. 3D printed products are used in various Slovenian companies, such as: Slatnar d.o.o. – development and manufacturing end parts in Ski industry – presentation of practical solutions, Los Automation d.o.o. - production of optimized machine elements, Pat Tel d.o.o. – prototyping and manufacturing of optical communication elements … and othersIn August 2019, the Color 3D Multi Jet Fusion printer comes into the market. The demo unit is already on display in CGS plus d.o.o. demo center, at Brnčičeva Street 13 in Ljubljana.
- Gravimetrical analysis of oils with high evaporation rate in the stamping process of electrical steelInes Bergoč, Hidria d.o.o.
Špela Bolka, Hidria d.o.o.
Urška Žonta, Hidria d.o.o.
Production of laminated segments and final rotors and stators stacks of electrical motors is made from electrical steel with high-speed stamping procedure. During the stamping Oils with high evaporation rate are used. The main function of these oils is the lubrication of contact surfaces. Therefore, the lifetime of stamping tools is longer.
oils with high evaporation rate contain solvent and high molecular mass of hydrocarbons, that represents the lubrication part. The amount of the solvent is much higher than the amount of lubricant. n the stamping process, it is needed to achieve optimal ratio both of the main chemicals in the oil. Thermogravimetric analysis is one of the laboratory level methods, allowing monitoring of variation between the lubrication and solvent components in correlation of time and temperature.
In this study, we simulated the technological stamping conditions and studied evaporation of high evaporated oil during the time period. The hydrocarbons were concentrated during the process and the greasiness of surfaces influences uncleanliness of the final parts. Furthermore, the small metal parts and dust from the environment were present on the final stacks.
With the estimation of the origin of uncleanliness it is possible now to better understand primarily function of oils with high evaporation rate and consequently, the parameters of lubrication systems are set more accurately. The influence of cleanliness on final surfaces of stamping line was recognized.
- Gravure counter-form in the mouldMatjaž Rot, TECOS
Andrej Glojek, TECOS
Ziga Kogoj, Orodjarstvo Knific
Mladen Krčić, Orodjarstvo Knific
For a number of years, different shrinkages and related deformations have been a true nightmare of any toolmaker producing moulds for injection moulding. But in the last few years the development of technology simulation programmes for plastic injection moulding changed the approach in mouldmaking. Whenever major deformations occur after the ejection and cannot be reduced by means of technological parameters of the injection moulding machine or by changing the gate locations or the product wall thickness, a mould counter-gravure is produced.
- Industrial metrology as an important pillar of the Industry 4.0 strategySimon Smolnikar, RLS d.o.o.
In recent years, industrial companies have been facing the global challenge of how to optimise their manufacturing processes and thereby gain worldwide competitive advantage. The main challenge lies in boosting the productivity of the company’s manufacturing processes without having to sacrifice the product quality, or even improving it. Long-term experience and collaboration of technological companies and the industry have made it possible to develop and implement technologies for the manufacturing processes that provide the manufacturing companies a comprehensive product quality control system for the entire manufacturing process. Process control and automation with activity planning based on the shop-floor data is one of the essential pillars in the realisation of the Industry 4.0 strategy
- Industrial welding proceses, fume gases and influence of shielding gases for fume gases reductionEdvard Bjelajac, Messer Slovenija d.o.o.
MIG/MAG welding with solid and flux cored wire, TIG and MMA produce fume gases, which negative influence on health of welders on longer period. With welding proces optimization, shielding mixtures substitution and other actions in production is possible to reduce fume gases. With right choice of shielding mixtures, we influence also on weldability and quality of welds and to overall costs of welding process.
- Influence of storage time on properties of injection molding parts from PA 66Silvester Bolka, Fakulteta za tehnologijo polimerov
For producing visible parts, it is really important to get the best mechanical, thermal properties and good appearance. In order to ensure a functional and aesthetically beautiful product, it is necessary to adjust the injection molding parameters that effect each material differently. Polyamides take up moisture primarily in the amorphous part of the morphology. With a higher moisture content, we also improve their toughness. High toughness is especially important for injection molded parts used for construction parts, which are used in products where they are mechanically loaded to avoid fracture.
In this paper we will present the influence of the storage time, where the injection molded PA 66 GF15 products absorb moisture, on their mechanical and thermal properties. We will present how the injection molding parameters, with which we achieve a lower degree of crystallinity, influance higher moisture absorption and thus a greater change in mechanical and thermal properties.
- Integration of Quality Management using synergies between MES and CAQKlemen Lisec, Inden d.o.o.
Dušan Božič, Inden d.o.o.
Jochen Kinauer, camLine GmbH
The ultimate objective of manufacturing lines is to achieve good factory performance and high process quality.
Such factory performance is possible only by understanding the relevant processes, monitoring and controlling the process windows, ensuring stable processes, achieving the necessary product quality at all times, guaranteeing error-free production and promptly detecting and addressing any anomalies.
Collecting and evaluating all of the applicable data and controlling the equipment performance are the challenges of automation. Managing the manufacturing quality and document improvements in the manufacturing process is the focus of FMEA methodologies.
The ability to integrate improvements of the process flow adressed by FMEA, using CAQ software and the integration and documentation of the improved manufacturing methodologies within the MES will be the content of the presentation.
- Machine Vision, key enabling technology of I4.0Jure Skvarč, Kolektor Orodjarna, PE Vision
Machine vision systems are devices that automatically extract useful information from images acquired by different cameras. In this way they enable implementation of quality control, machine and device guidance control, part verification and identification, code and label reading, and providing valuable data for production optimization.
Machine vision technologies are the key technology of smart factories. No other device collects and interprets as much data as machine vision devices. The idea is to capture and understand image information and deliver results to the value chain at each stage of production. This is not just about detecting errors, separating a good-bad product but for automatically triggering intelligent actions. In this way, artificial intelligence methods significantly improve capabilities of machine vision systems and enable the implementation of completely new solutions beyond the industrial environment.
Future factories will be designed to provide maximum benefits for the lowest possible use of material and energy. Connected and flexible production processes supported by machine vision will pave the way for new business models.
- MECODES – New collaboration solution for mechatronic designReni Banov, CADCAM DESIGN CENTAR d.o.o.
Nikola Mareković, CADCAM DESIGN CENTAR d.o.o.
Stjepan Razum, CADCAM DESIGN CENTAR d.o.o.
Boris Kumpar, CADCAM DESIGN CENTAR d.o.o.
Zlatko Šimunec, CADCAM DESIGN CENTAR d.o.o.
MECODES is a unique suite of MCAD and ECAD collaboration solutions, it introduces new methodology for multi-domain collaboration during the design of electromechanical products. To improve product design, achieve cost reduction and enable more interdisciplinary innovation, MECODES adopts the latest technologies, data exchange IDX formats and EDMD protocols.
Why should you use MECODES?
• Improves design quality
• Faster development processes
• Optimizes development cycles by integration (reduced rework)
• Increased product and process innovation through communication
• Advanced product analysis of cross-discipline results by 3D product representations
• Decreased time-to-market by resolving hurdles through communication within the entire product development process
• Accelerated return-on-investment by the faster introduction of new products to the marketplace
CADCAM Group developed the new MECODES software generation for integrating the market-leading innovative business platform - the 3DEXPERIENCE platform, with the important electrical PCB design system – Mentor Xpedition and PADS, CADENCE Allegro and Altium Designer.
The designers and engineers in the two disciplines - mechanical and electrical who work with CATIA V5 or with 3DEXPERIENCE and ECAD tools can collaborate on same native model and view the collectively created design results including component placements, routings, silk screens, silk mask, multilayers traces transformed in 3D models for the entire electro-mechanical product development and simulation. The ECAD designers can cross-examine the MCAD data and the MCAD designers can cross-examine the ECAD data and have complete ECAD and MCAD BOM together on one place.
- New alloy solutions for powders for additive manufacturingMarianne Kapp, voestalpine BÖHLER Edelstahl GmbH & Co KG/ Voestalpine Slovenija
In this presentation two new, recently developed powder alloys, aimed for the use in the additive manufacturing industry will be introduced.
Currently, alloys such as 1.2709 or 17-4PH are widely used in the additive manufacturing industry due to their easy printability in the laser powder bed. However, whereas 1.2709 shows good hardness and mechanical properties, the alloy is not corrosion resistant. This limits its usability for certain applications especially in the plastic mould industry. 17-4Ph on the other hand is, due to its high chromium content corrosion resistant, but exhibits an insufficient hardness level for many tool steel applications. Therefore, a new grade, BÖHLER M789 AMPO, was developed combining these two necessities. While reaching a hardness level of 52 HRC, BÖHLER M789 AMPO is at the same time corrosion resistant and moreover, easily printable.
The easy printability has made the maraging steels the working horses of the AM industry. However for many wear-intensive applications higher hardness than 52 HRC is needed and carbides are indispensible. Therefore another grade BÖHLER W360 AMPO, which is a high carbon tool steel has recently been developed as powder and will also be presented. Advantages and challenges of this alloy will be explained and possible applications discussed.
- Optimisation of the diecasting processCosimo Raone, MotulTech Baraldi
F. Checcetto, MotulTech Baraldi
P. Grubelnik, Olma d.o.o.
M. Kambič, Olma d.o.o.
Total Thermal Vision ™ (TTV™) is the system for the thermographic detection of thermal maps of a die through infrared camera on process. The die surface temperature is one the most important variables in the die-casting of light-alloys. Hence, the die temperature should be accurately selected and spraying should be improved to achieve the optimal temperature.
The engineering of the system allowed obtaining the information on process surpassing the traditional and well-known application of infrared thermography performed exclusively during process start-up or during limited process optimization phases. The integration of the measurement of temperature of the dies amplifies the capacity of thermal adjustment of the process through the action of spraying, strategic phase for the improvement of quality and for improvement of die life.
In addition to the benefits of process improvement system, TTV certifies and quantifies in a scientific and objective way the final condition of the die-casting process and make it available in the history of the final die cast product (\"Thermal ID\"). This is extreme important for the traceability of the process, particularly in the automotive industry.
- Optimization of injection molding of PA 66 GF35 with Flash DSCSilvester Bolka, Fakulteta za tehnologijo polimerov
Luka Bertoncelj, Iskra ISD Plast
Robert Kocbek, Iskra ISD Plast
Tamara Rozman, FTPO
Rebeka Lorber, FTPO
Teja Pešl, FTPO
Rajko Bobovnik, FTPO
Thomas Wilhelm, FTPO
High heating and cooling speeds (2.400.000 °C/min) with Flash DSC enables the simulation of processing of thermoplasts. We can determine the glass transition temperature, melting point, crystallization and cold crystallization, melting enthalpy. The temperature area for measurements is from -35 °C do 300 °C. The sample size is from10 ng – 1000 ng. In the process of injection molding of semi crystalline thermoplasts, the cooling speed in the tool and the tool temperature is very important. These two parameters strongly influence the end characteristics of injection molded parts.
We will presents Flash DSC and its practical use in optimizing the injection molding of PA 66 GF35. We have investigated the influence of tool temperature and cooling time on the degree of crystallinity of PA 66 GF35. The characterization was done in the laboratories of the Faculty of Polymer Technology in Slovenj Gradec. We have evaluated the mechanical and thermal properties before and after optimization with the results of Flash DSC measurements. The research was done within the project of the company Iskra ISD – Plast from Kranj, titled »Turbine House«.
- Patent protection Stanislav Kaluža, Urad Republike Slovenije za intelektualno lastnino
The article will present The Slovenian Intellectual Property Office, its tasks and jurisdiction, intellectual property and protection of intellectual property rights with emphasis on patent protection. In addition to the basics of patent protection, important issues will be addressed, which should be posed by any inventor or potential patent applicant.
-What do I want to achieve with a patent application?
-When to patent?
-Where to patent?
A special URSIL service will also be presented, which is aimed at innovative small and medium-sized enterprises with market-relevant products that want to find out what they can protect as their intellectual property and what benefits it can bring them. In cooperation with the European Patent Office, URSIL is implementing the First Information on Intellectual Property (with an emphasis on industrial property) project aimed at innovative small and medium-sized enterprises with no experiences in this field. The acquired new information and new knowledge can be an advantage over competition.
- Pressure Sensor for Injection Molding Process ControlDomen Rovšček, Hidria d.o.o.
Dragan Kusić, TECOS, Razvojni center orodjarstva Slovenije
Boštjan Berginc, Hidria d.o.o.
Aljaž Podobnik, Hidria d.o.o.
A global need to control automatic processes with intelligent systems has emerged with modernization of production technology. Consequently, a desire to monitor »real time« production parameters (100% control) is increasing, also in processing of plastic materials.
Injection molding of plastic materials is often a blind process, because the user needs to rely on the process parameters of the injection molding machine itself without a direct insight into real events inside the mold. Existing systems for injection molding or Aluminum die-casting process control are very expensive and can easily exceed the price of the tool. Therefore, these systems are often used just to define the tool settings at first startup. There is a demand for an injection molding process control system that would be affordable to a wider range of users and easy to use. It should also have the accuracy comparable with the existing systems.
Injection Molding Pressure Sensor (IMPS) project includes development of an innovative pressure sensor with integrated electronics that can be used in every injection molding tool without large additional investment. The developed sensor enables: 1. Closed-loop regulation system for injection molding process or monitoring of the events directly inside the mold and response of the process based on measured values; 2. Injection molding diagnostics with prediction of process events, which greatly reduces the scrap rate and consequently optimizes the energy and raw material usage.
- Production automation at the foundry plant Livarna TitanOliver Topić, PS Logatec d.o.o.
Darko Podržaj, PS Logatec d.o.o.
At the foundry plant Livarna Titan, which specialises in the production and treatment of castings, the manner of work prior to automation of the production was mostly manual grinding of the castings on disk grindstones and manual handling of CNC milling and turning machines. Due to the very hard work involved in the grinding of castings, the management of the foundry plant decided to implement robotic cells for grinding castings.
This contribution presents the development of robotic cells for grinding and the development of robotic cells for handling CNC machines, since in many industrial processes this type of development has become an indispensable part of the modern, economical and, most of all, user-friendly technology. The demand for the implementation of such robotic cells came from the contracting authority, since manual work is slow, hard and taxing on the workers, therefore we have developed robotic cells where the hard and monotonous work is performed by a robot, simultaneously ensuring the production of large product series with smooth work and without interruptions. Large product series are now produced in a much shorter time frame. This paper describes the process of planning such robotic cells.
- ReconCell: The need of safe flexibility for Industry!Michael Pravits, Pilz Ges.m.b.H.
Aleš Ude, Institut Jožef Stefan
Igor Kovač, Institut Jožef Stefan
Miha Deniša, Institut Jožef Stefan
The Institute Jožef Stefan has developed a highly flexible, reconfigurable and modular robot cell, the ReconCell, according to the demands needed to come to the paradigm Industry 4.0. This reconfigurable robot cell represents a production cell with the highest degree of adaptation to the products to be processed. The ReconCell is a completely free reconfigurable cell, which uses 2 robots, passive hexapods as fixtures, P&P interfaces, rigid adaptable frame to change the function of the cell to adapt to different products automatically. However, in order to distribute this cell within the European Union, legal requirements regarding safety must be observed. Here, the company Pilz has prepared a risk assessment for the Institute Jožef Stefan and developed a safety concept, under permission that the flexible function of the cell remains.
- Recycling of biocompositesSilvester Bolka, Fakulteta za tehnologijo polimerov
Teja Pešl, FTPO
Rebeka Lorber, FTPO
Tamara Rozman, FTPO
Rajko Bobovnik, FTPO
Thomas Wilhelm, FTPO
There is a trend in polymer industry in substituting glass fibres for natural fibres and the use of (at least) biobased polymer materials and recycled material. In substituting natural fibres, the use of waste natural fibres is becoming especially interesting, because the waste fibres can be used for biocomposites, therefore lowering the waste. Additionally, by using a biobased thermoplastic matrix, we can produce a mainly biobased product. To follow the trend of circular economy, meaning to recycle the developed biocomposites after end-of-life, we also investigated the influence of multiple recycling cycles on the characteristics of the biocomposites. To develop a biocomposites with characteristics appropriate for technical products, we have to add additives which will enable multiple recycling cycles without any significant changes of the product characteristics.
We will present the biocomposites, with thermoplastic matrix synthesised from sugar cane, with miscanthus fibres as reinforcement. We investigated the influence of multiple recycling cycles by multiple injection molding and gridding of injection molded parts. The characterization was done at the laboratories of the Faculty of Polymer Technology in Slovenj Gradec. We determined the mechanical, thermal and dynamical mechanical properties as well toughness. We have to a great extend achieved to keep the characteristics of the biocomposites and show that we can recycle the mainly biobased biocomposites for the production of equivalent products.
The work was carried out as part of the Cel.Krog project - potential of biomass for development of advanced materials and bio-based products, led by the Institute of Pulp and Paper, where Kolektor and the Faculty of Polymer Technology are involved as partners.
- Research and development of pulsating high-pressure supply of cooling and lubricating fluid into the turning machining processMatjaž Kern, Katedra za menedžment obdelovalnih tehnologij, Fakulteta za strojništvo, UNI LJ
Franci Pušavec, Katedra za menedžment obdelovalnih tehnologij, Fakulteta za strojništvo, UNI LJ
The paper presents the development and the influence of the system for high-pressure pulsating supply of coolant and lubrication fluid to the turning cutting process. When machining hard to cut materials, such as the nickel alloy Inconel 718, due to their poor thermal conductivity, deformation hardening and other material properties, there is a rise of temperatures in the cutting zone and high tool loads occur, that are reflected in the short durability of the cutting tool. This can be avoided to a certain extent by flood supplying coolant and lubrication fluid or even better with supplying it in the form of a jet and under high pressure directly into the cutting zone, thereby reducing the temperature of the cutting zone, reducing friction and prolonging tool life. In doing so, we do not have precise control over the process of forming and breaking the chips, therefore the aim of the work was to develop and test the system for high pressure pulsating supply of coolant and lubrication fluid and make a comparative analysis of the turning of hard to cut material in three processing conditions, where for the first time (1) cutting will be carried out by conventional flooding, secondly (2) the coolant lubricating fluid with higher pressure will be directed between the chip and the tool in the form of a stream of constant flow, and thirdly (3) its flow will change over time; The cooling and lubricating fluid will be supplied in pulses.
- Robotic cell for milling of thermal insulation elementsPeter Kerec, ABB d.o.o.
Aleš Klun, ABB d.o.o.
Robert Logar, ABB d.o.o.
Nejc Pregl , Isomat d.o.o.
Isomat is a high-specialized energy technology company that\'s providing sustainable and innovative thermal management solutions of premium performance. In 2019 we developed and commissioned 2nd robotic cell for milling of thermal insulation elements of different shapes. Robotic solution comprises creation of milling trajectories in MasterCam environment and then transfer to ABB RobotStudio, where milling robot programs get their final touches.
- Robotic machine tending in high cycle manufacturing Matej Merkač, Yaskawa Slovenija d.o.o.
Hubert Kosler, Yaskawa Slovenija d.o.o.
Aljoša Zupanc, Yaskawa Slovenija d.o.o.
Damian Širaj, Yaskawa Ristro d.o.o.
Erih Arko, Yaskawa Ristro d.o.o.
Damir Smailović, Yaskawa Ristro d.o.o.
Production line is equipped with five robotic cells with a total of ten robots, which are equipped with a universal servo robot grippers for handling with more than 300 types of products. Integration of robotic handling operations in process of manufacturing of catalytic converters ensures high cycle production with simplified transition to different type of product. Robotic handling is simplified significantly by using 3D robot vision system. Robotic machine tending in high cycle manufacturing demands a dynamic team in initial process of verifying concepts, evaluation of optimal solutions.
- SLCR – Cleaning, De-coating, Marking by light Insight into the world of laser surface treatmentBastian Marheineke, SLCR Lasertechnik GmbH
Since 1997, SLCR Lasertechnik works as a medium-sized company in the field of laser
applications. Here, SLCR provides solutions and systems for surface treatment. The
company possesses a great experience within the treatment of industrial surfaces
consisting of metals, plastics, composites and many other materials. Main applications
are for example cleaning of surfaces, de-coating or also marking.
The presentation will demonstrate improvement in manufacturing by SLCR laser
technology by means of concrete application examples in different industries. We will
explain the general functional principle of the SLCR lasers and will present the process
characteristics. Additionally, possibilities and experiences in many applications like
preparing and cleaning of surfaces, de-painting even of complex geometries etc. by
laser will be presented.
For many applications in modern production processes, the cleaning or surface
preparation is a mandatory task to achieve high quality products. Specifically for
bonding processes like gluing or welding, the preparation or cleaning of the joint areas
is very important and a key factor for a high strength bond.
As well as for bonding processes, it is also important to prepare surfaces for ongoing
painting processes, so that a reliable adhesion between surface and paint is ensured.
Furthermore, the precise paint removal on components is a core competence of SLCR
Lasertechnik in order to avoid production steps like masking and to reduce process
SLCR Lasertechnik offers as an alternative approach for many applications a
contact-free, gentle and dry treatment without any media, only with light.
- SmartMForming - Smart Tools for Sheet Metal FormingTomaž Savšek, TPV d.o.o.
Petra Janežič, Gorenje Orodjarna, d.o.o.
Inda Balagić, CADCAM Design Centar
Stjepan Flegarić, Fakultet strojarstva i brodogradnje, Sveučilište u Zagrebu
Klemen Žužek, Gorenje orodjarna d.o.o.
Katja Popovič , Gorenje orodjarna d.o.o.
Mitja Cerovšek Boštjan Piletič, TPV d.o.o.
Mario Štorga, Fakultet strojarstva i brodogradnje, Sveučilište u Zagrebu
Sheet metal forming is one of the most important processes in modern industrial production. A number of components in the automotive and household appliances industries are made of sheet metal. The processes of sheet metal forming are becoming increasingly demanding due to the increasingly complex design, new technologies and materials, the requirements for quality and traceability in large-scale production and, last but not least, the requirements for energy and carbon footprint reduction. Today in the automotive industry, more than 35% steel parts are made of high-strength steels and this number is still increasing.
Within the SmartMForming project we are developing intelligent sheet metal forming tools using sensors, actuators and a central computer that enable on-line management. With a comprehensive set of sensors, we monitor product geometry, breakage and recording forces, and state of the tool and press. Based on that information, the tool implements the necessary geometry correction, and sends the state of the products, tools and machine to the production management system.
The main advantage of this concept is that there is no need for investing into additional equipment or machines (presses). There are also other advantages: shortening technological time, increasing product quality, reducing costs of the tool during the lifetime cycle and the most important, higher capability of manufacturing products that are more complex
- Softsynchro - when with tap holder get moreRok Volk, EMUGE-FRANKEN tehnika d.o.o.
On many modern CNC machining centres the rotation of the spindle can be synchronized with the feed axis. This makes it possible to produce threads with tool holders without length compensation.
However, practical experience shows that even with this kind of “rigid tapping”, synchronization errors can come up such a reduced tool life, caused by high one-sided flank friction on the threading tool.
EMUGE produce tap holder with minimum length compensation, with patented elastomer springs that absorb axial fores, giving the tap an immense boost in tool life and performance.
Tap holder Softsynchro is now available in diferent versions that can be adapted.
- STEADYLINE - overcome tool overhang challengesZoran Svenšek, SECO TOOLS SI d.o.o.
In most industry segments, the trend is to produce larger and more complex workpieces.
These large workpieces often feature deep cavities which require long reach tooling. These long overhang tools have a higher tendency to vibrate, which will have a negative impact on the production process: necessity to reduce cutting conditions, difficulty to reach the desired quality, in particular the surface finish, premature wear of the cutting edge to name but a few.
On the other hand, to remain competitive in their markets, customers are constantly looking for productivity improvement.
Vibrations are incompatible with productivity and quality. Therefore, solutions to get rid of the vibration is a must for many customers.
- Stereolithography: ready for the production of final products?Janez Slapnik, Fakulteta za tehnologijo polimerov
Thomas Wilhelm, Fakulteta za tehnologijo polimerov
Irena Pulko, Fakulteta za tehnologijo polimerov
Slavko Cehner, Doorson d.o.o.
Franc Hanžič, Doorson d.o.o.
Stereolithography is the first patented technology of additive manufacturing (also known as 3D printing). It works on the principle of curing the photosensitive resin by light and enables precise production of complex products directly from the CAD model. Because of the brittleness of photosensitive resins, it has been used in the past only for the production of visual prototypes. Recent progress in material development opens up new possibilities of use for this technology. In the introductory part of the paper, examples of the possibilities of using stereolithography for industrial applications will be presented. The following part will show how the mechanical and thermal properties of photosensitive AM resins can be tailored according to the requirements of the final product. Finally, a practical example of the development of a photosensitive resin with improved tribological properties for the application of the automatic door drive system will be presented.
- The analysis of the effects of annealing parameters, microstructure and sample´s shape on the kinetics of decarburization of the hypoeutectoid carbon steel C45 during annealing in the air atmosphereMatija Zorc, Univerza v Ljubljani, Naravoslovnotehniška fakulteta
Milan Bizjak, Univerza v Ljubljani, Naravoslovnotehniška fakulteta
Borut Kosec, Univerza v Ljubljani, Naravoslovnotehniška fakulteta
Katja Zupančič, Univerza v Ljubljani, Naravoslovnotehniška fakulteta
Aleš Nagode, Univerza v Ljubljani, Naravoslovnotehniška fakulteta
The research focused on the effects of the annealing temperature and annealing time on the decarburization of grinded surfaces of non-alloy C45 steel. Annealing temperatures and times were chosen in a way that allows for the best interpretation of the kinetics of decarburization while simultaneously emphasizing the differences between the kinetics of decarburization in different microstructures. The chosen annealing temperatures were: Ta
- The concept of smart geared actuatorMartin Stepančič, Institut Jožef Stefan
Andrej Biček, Nela d.o.o.
Miha Erjavec, Podkrižnik d.o.o.
Simon Kulovec, Podkrižnik d.o.o.
Leon Žlajpah, Institut Jožef Stefan
High performance position control systems are one of the key components in modern robotic systems, CNC machines and other mechatronic devices in the field of automation. In an unstructured environment, in which a physical contact may appear, the control system must achieve the desired compliance. We consider a proof of concept with an intelligent geared actuator, based on the synchronous motor, a planocentric gearbox based on S-gear geometry, dual encoder feedback, a torque sensor, and the vibration sensor. The geared actuator is equipped with an industrial drive and a dedicated computer, which compensates undesired effects, diagnosis, and the user interface through a web server.
- The problem of public passenger transport in the Novo mestoMatej Babič, Fakulteta za informacijske študije univerza v Novem mestu
Janez Povh, Fakulteta za strojništvo, UL; Razvojni center Novo mesto
Public passenger transport (PPP) is important for each community, as the current transport system faces well-known problems such as congestion, environmental impact, lack of parking areas, increased safety risks and high energy consumption. On the other hand, PPP is uncompetitive to a passenger car, as it does not allow for comfortable and time-sensitive transport, but forces users to adjust their daily rhythm to the PPP timetable. In rural areas where the population density is lower, and the average age is often higher, due to the greater fragmentation of settlements, the connection with urban centers through PPP is a particularly big problem. The use of cars for transport to the city in Novo mesto is reflected in the form of traffic jams in the morning and afternoon peaks, and during the day in the form of high occupancy of parking spaces around the public areas (hospital, health center); near employers. The idea of the project is to make a breakthrough in the integration of these separate subsystems into a comprehensive public transport system in MONM, which will be based on detailed data analysis and artificial intelligence, with the joint engagement of the Development Center Novo mesto (RCNM), the Faculty of Information Studies (FIŠ) and MONM better serve the citizens of MONM. The main objective of the project is to develop a new model of smart PPP in the city of Novo mesto (MONM), which will be adapted to the specific needs of the citizens of MONM: (i) the size of the buses and their routes will be adapted to the actual needs; (ii) the city will be closely linked to the bicycle distribution system and to the public parking system; (iii) in rural areas, it will be complemented by a call-by-call system. In the article, we will present the issues of NFC technology, record the number of connections on WIFI points in city buses, or use a special mobile application that would also have this feature. We will also show how important passenger transport solutions for industry are.
- Trends in the automotive lighting industryAleš Adamlje, Hella Saturnus Slovenija d.o.o.
With development of electric vehicles, use of LED sources and constant pressures to reduce costs, drastic changes began to occur on the market of automotive lighting. In order to be competitive on the market, which is becoming increasingly demanding, car manufacturers introduce new design and technology solutions that increase the complexity of parts and products. Increased complexity of the products requires new innovative approaches from the suppliers in the design and manufacturing of parts and products. The use of new materials, technologies and manufacturing processes, and the proliferation of products that the supplier is capable to develope, produce and deliver to car manufacturers is a necessity for the survival of automotive suppliers in the global market.
The article presents a comparison between typical products in the lighting industry and the front end of the car, today and in the future, trends in the development of products and parts of the front end of the car and trends in the development of thermoplastic materials, technologies and processes that are used and will be used in the future. A practical example of the product for front-end of an electric car developed and produced in our company will be presented.
- Unique dimensional measuring systems for complex metrology challengesNejc Demšar, LOTRIČ Meroslovje, d. o. o.
Presentation of good practice – custom development for solving specific metrology challenges to improve the quality of processes.
Due to the increasing demands of customers and standards through automated quality control of specific products, there is an increasing need for the development and construction of dimensional measuring machines, which are fully adapted to the requirements of the user.
Adjusted measurement characteristics, measurement principles, upgrade, construction, level of automation and installation locations ensure a high degree of accuracy in measuring the dimensions and surfaces of products that cannot be measured by serial measuring machines.
- »Poka-Yoke« – automation and informatisation of manual assembly processes in manufacturingTim Vrbančič, Inea RBT d.o.o.
Janez Tancek, Inea RBT d.o.o.
At manual assembly processes during production of different products, worker usually composes final product from various parts. Due to various factors, also human factors, errors in phase of assembly process can occur. Due to numerous product parts, monotonous assembly process and many other factors, parts can be missed, or changed between each other due to visual similarity. Such mistakes can lead to inadequate or non-functional products. Neither producer, neither end-user wants to have non-functional products. »Poka-Yoke« is Japanese term speaking about error prevention . Solution described in this article speaks about leading the worker through manual assembly process and is based on system of terminals of producer Anywire, and control of assembly process with help of PLC controller from Mitsubishi Electric. Terminals lead the worker through manual assembly with help of their functionalities (switching LED lamps on, visualizing number of parts, opening the doors in front of box with parts, …). Solution can be further upgraded and computerised with integration to ERP and MES level of company. Such solution leads to zero-error production and in long run to higher productivity, higher product quality and to financial benefits.